The level of efficiency within a region is representative of its urban organization. The more compact and complex the organizational networks are, the less resource waste there will be, and the urban system will be more efficient. A decrease in the consumption of resources is associated with an increase in organizational networks. The following indicators relate the concept of complexity to the sustainable city model, and describe how and why complexity is necessary:

A4. Urban complexity

Both the urban and natural systems have their own complex organizations that contribute to the stability and continuity of the systems themselves. An advanced society, therefore, is better situated to reach a higher degree of organization and to favour the development of a competitive strategy. This is because they have the infrastructure as well as the information and knowledge necessary to mitigate the pressures of the consumption of material resources.

A5. Green spaces and biodiversity

The loss of biodiversity, due to urban developments, has resulted in problems related to the water cycle and an unnecessary waste of non-renewable energies. By increasing biodiversity in cities, there will be more green roofs to help control the heating and cooling of buildings, more birds and wildlife, and more open areas dedicated to recreation and leisure for citizens. This approach should be directed towards the management of urban spaces.


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